Simplify, highlight & organize

Models, by definition, are meant to simplify, highlight, suggest, and organize. But in doing so, they can exert a powerful guiding effect in determining how questions are posed and defining the relationships singled out for investigation. 

Reese, S.D. (2007) Journalism Research and the Hierarchy of Influences Model: A Global Perspective. University of Texas, USA


„Die Komponenten eines Lebenslaufs bestehen aus Wendepunkten, an denen etwas geschehen ist, was nicht hätte geschehen müssen. Das beginnt mit der Geburt.“

Luhmann, Niklas (2001): Short City, Short City 1 hg. von Peter Gente, Heidi Paris und Martin Weinmann. 3. Auflage. Frankfurt a. M.

Theoretical concepts and conceptions

Thus it seems natural to think of the concept of justice as distinct from the various conceptions of justice and as being specified by the role which these different sets of principles, these different conceptions, have in common. Those who hold different conceptions of justice can, then, still agree that institutions are just when no arbitrary distinctions are made between persons in the assigning of basic rights and duties and when the rules determine a proper balance between competing claims to the advantages of social life.

Rawls, J. (1999). A theory of justice (Revised ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

as quoted in:

Jensen, K. B. (2013). Definitive and Sensitizing Conceptualizations of Mediatization. Communication Theory, 23, 203–222

…begin to understand your research…

Once researchers begin to understand their questions and studies within a levels-of-analysis framework, it becomes easier to compare them to other research, see connections among different levels, and generally begin a much more systematic approach to a diverse area of the field.


Phänomene der Zwischenlagerung

Jugend ist ebenso ein Phänomen der Zwischenlagerung im Hinblick auf die in der Adoleszenzphase stattfindende Kompetenzentwicklung und die Lösung aus der Herkunftsfamilie (Erikson, Piaget, Habermas), und sie ist dies auch in generationsspezifischer Hinsicht: Sie ist der soziale Ort der (kollektiven) Verarbeitung des Erfahrungsumbruchs von einer Generation zur anderen (vgl. dazu vor allem Mannheim 1964b).

Bohnsack, R. (2005). „Social Worlds“ und „Natural Histories“. Zum Forschungsstil der Chicagoer Schule anhand zweier klassischer Studien. ZBBS, 6 (1), S.112

History rewritten

„As Goethe contended, history is continually rewritten, not so much because of the discovery of new documentary evidence, but because the changing perspectives of historians lead to new selections from the data.“ 

Shibutani, T. (1955). Reference Groups as Perspectives. American Journals of Sociology, 60. pp. 522-529


„Technology is virtually never ‘inherently’ a panacea ensuring a utopian future and technology is virtually never ‘inherently’ a cancerous growth destroying all cultural traditions in its path. Nonetheless, with creativity, thoughtfulness and vigilance, communication technologies can often accentuate and recreate constructive cultural patterns, values and institutions.“ 

Charles Soukup, (2006) Computer-mediated communication as a virtual third place: building Oldenburg’s great good places on the world wide web. New Media & Society 2006 8: 421

Freedom of the Press

„Freedom of the press now belongs not just to those who own printing presses, but also to those who use cell phones, video cameras, blogging software and other technology to deliver news and views to the world.“

Ann Cooper, „The bigger Tent“ – cited from „Citizen Journalism, Agenda-Setting and the 2008 Presidential Elections“ by Kirsten A. Johnson


„Structures are abstractions that only become visible when we name them and begin to look for regularities and norms in human behavior.“

Reese, S. D. (2007). Journalism Research and the Hierarchy of Influences Model: A Global Perspective. University of Texas, USA